In the United States, 70% of crude oil and petroleum products are shipped by pipeline. (23% are by ship, 4% by truck, and three% by rail) In Canada for pure gasoline and petroleum merchandise, 97% are shipped by pipeline. Over the final 25 years, I have been involved with designing and inspecting horizontal directional drills for pipeline building, attending numerous seminars, buying many texts and studying numerous white papers associated to the subject.
Pipelines for centralized heating techniques are often laid on the ground or overhead. Pipelines for petroleum operating via permafrost areas as Trans-Alaska-Pipeline are sometimes run overhead to be able to avoid melting the frozen ground by sizzling petroleum which might end in sinking the pipeline in the floor...Read More