If electrons and phonons are in a thermal equilibrium state, the state could be described by a single temperature. In practice, the hot/cold and thermal/non-thermal regime can coexist, relying on the main points of the interacting laser and materials parameters. If precision machining of Copper components is what you might be on the lookout for, Request a Quote today.
Metal movies on polymer substrates regularly require patterning with very nice element, right down to the micron scale. One technique is to use chemical etching, which requires a multi-step lithography course of. It could be convenient to make use of lasers for direct write patterning of the metal on the substrate...Read More